Microsoft Windows Vista
A variety of other privilege-restriction techniques are also built into Vista. An example is the concept of "integrity levels" in user processes, whereby a process with a lower integrity level cannot interact with processes of a higher integrity level and cannot perform DLL—injection to a processes of a higher integrity level. The security restrictions of Windows services are more fine-grained, so that services especially those listening on the network have no ability to interact with parts of the operating system they do not need to. Obfuscation techniques such as address space layout randomization are used to increase the amount of effort required of malware before successful infiltration of a system.
Code Integrity verifies that system binaries have not been tampered with by malicious code. As part of the redesign of the network stack, Windows Firewall has been upgraded, with new support for filtering both incoming and outgoing traffic. Advanced packet filter rules can be created which can grant or deny communications to specific services.
The bit versions of Vista require that all device drivers be digitally signed, so that the creator of the driver can be identified.
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Windows Vista includes a large number of new application programming interfaces. Chief among them is the inclusion of version 3. Version 3. These technologies are also available for Windows XP and Windows Server to facilitate their introduction to and usage by developers and end users.
Tietokone ei käynnisty Microsoft Windows Vistaan
There are also significant new development APIs in the core of the operating system, notably the completely re-architected audio, networking, print, and video interfaces, major changes to the security infrastructure, improvements to the deployment and installation of applications " ClickOnce " and Windows Installer 4. There are some issues for software developers using some of the graphics APIs in Vista. Games or programs which are built solely on the Windows Vista-exclusive version of DirectX , version 10, cannot work on prior versions of Windows, as DirectX 10 is not available for previous Windows versions.
Also, games which require the features of D3D9Ex, the updated implementation of DirectX 9 in Windows Vista are also incompatible with previous Windows versions. However, hardware overlay is not supported, because it is considered as an obsolete feature in Vista. Windows Vista does not include the " Luna " visual theme, created in for Windows XP, or most of the classic color schemes which have been part of Windows since the Windows 3.
Also the caption buttons are changed. Only Windows Classic can still be found in that operating system. All editions except Windows Vista Starter support both bit x86 and bit x64 processor architectures. Similar sanctions exist in South Korea. A Vista Capable or equivalent PC is capable of running all editions of Windows Vista although some of the special features and high-end graphics options may require additional or more advanced hardware. Windows Vista's Basic and Classic interfaces work with virtually any graphics hardware that supports Windows XP or ; accordingly, most discussion around Vista's graphics requirements centers on those for the Windows Aero interface.
Microsoft offers a tool called the Windows Vista Upgrade Advisor to assist Windows XP and Vista users in determining what versions of Windows their machine is capable of running. Although the installation media included in retail packages is a bit DVD, customers needing a CD-ROM or customers who wish for a bit install media are able to acquire this media through the Windows Vista Alternate Media program.
The Ultimate edition includes both bit and bit media. The digitally downloaded version of Ultimate includes only one version, either bit or bit, from Windows Marketplace. Maximum limits on physical memory RAM that Windows Vista can address vary depending on the both the Windows version and between bit and bit versions. The following table specifies the maximum physical memory limits supported:.
The total maximum number of logical processors of a PC that Windows Vista supports is: 32 for bit; 64 for bit. Microsoft occasionally releases service packs for its Windows operating systems to fix bugs and add new features. The initial deployment of the service pack caused a number of machines to continually reboot, rendering the machines unusable. This caused Microsoft to temporarily suspend automatic deployment of the service pack until the problem was resolved.
The synchronized release date of the two operating systems reflected the merging of the workstation and server kernels back into a single code base for the first time since Windows Initially, the service pack only supported 5 languages — English, French, Spanish, German and Japanese.
Support for the remaining 31 languages was released on April 14, A whitepaper published by Microsoft near the end of August outlined the scope and intent of the service pack, identifying three major areas of improvement: reliability and performance, administration experience, and support for newer hardware and standards.
Norton ongoing protection for Windows Vista after Microsoft ends support
The ability to choose individual drives to defragment is being reintroduced as well. Service Pack 1 introduced support for some new hardware and software standards, notably the exFAT file system, Booting a system using Extensible Firmware Interface on x64 systems was also introduced; this feature had originally been slated for the initial release of Vista but was delayed due to a lack of compatible hardware at the time.
Two areas have seen changes in SP1 that have come as the result of concerns from software vendors. One of these is desktop search; users will be able to change the default desktop search program to one provided by a third party instead of the Microsoft desktop search program that comes with Windows Vista, and desktop search programs will be able to seamlessly tie in their services into the operating system.
These changes come in part due to complaints from Google , whose Google Desktop Search application was hindered by the presence of Vista's built-in desktop search.
In June , Google claimed that the changes being introduced for SP1 "are a step in the right direction, but they should be improved further to give consumers greater access to alternate desktop search providers". The other area of note is a set of new security APIs being introduced for the benefit of antivirus software that currently relies on the unsupported practice of patching the kernel see Kernel Patch Protection.
An update to DirectX 10, named DirectX Graphics cards will be required to support DirectX SP1 includes a kernel An updated downloadable version of the Group Policy Management Console was released soon after the service pack. SP1 enables support for hotpatching, a reboot-reduction servicing technology designed to maximize uptime.
It works by allowing Windows components to be updated or "patched" while they are still in use by a running process. Hotpatch-enabled update packages are installed via the same methods as traditional update packages, and will not trigger a system reboot. In addition to a number of security and other fixes, a number of new features have been added.
Windows Vista and Windows Server share a single service pack binary, reflecting the fact that their code bases were joined with the release of Server Service Pack 2 is not a cumulative update meaning that Service Pack 1 must be installed first. It includes major new components that shipped with Windows 7 , as well as updated runtime libraries. It consists of the following components:. Although extensive, the Platform Update does not bring Windows Vista to the level of features and performance offered by Windows 7.
A Gartner research report predicted that Vista business adoption in would overtake that of XP during the same time frame As of January , Forrester Research had indicated that almost one third of North American and European corporations had started deploying Vista. At a May conference, a Microsoft Vice President said "Adoption and deployment of Windows Vista has been slightly ahead of where we had been with XP" for big businesses. In its first year of availability, PC World rated it as the biggest tech disappointment of , and it was rated by InfoWorld as 2 of Tech's all-time 25 flops.
The internet-usage market share for Windows Vista after two years of availability, in January , was This figure combined with World Internet Users and Population Stats yielded a user base of roughly million, which exceeded Microsoft's two-year post launch expectations by million. The internet user base reached before the release of its successor Windows 7 was roughly million according to the same statistical sources. Within its first month, 20 million copies of Vista were sold, double the amount of Windows XP sales within its first month in October , five years earlier.
Shortly after however, due to Vista's relatively low adoption rates and continued demand for Windows XP, Microsoft continued to sell Windows XP until June 30, , instead of the previously planned date of January 31, There were reports of Vista users "downgrading" their operating systems, as well as reports of businesses planning to skip Vista. Amid the negative reviews and reception, there were also significant positive reviews of Vista, most notably among PC gamers and the advantages brought about with DirectX 10, which allows for better gaming performance and more realistic graphics, as well as support for many new capabilities brought about in new video cards and GPUs.
However, many DirectX 9 games initially showed a drop in frame rate compared to that experienced in Windows XP. Though in mid, benchmarks suggested that Vista SP1 was on par with or better than Windows XP in terms of game performance. Around the release of Windows 7 in October , a survey by Valve Corporation indicated that The survey also indicated that DirectX 10 was supported on Windows Vista has received a number of negative assessments. Criticism targets include protracted development time 5—6 years , more restrictive licensing terms, the inclusion of a number of technologies aimed at restricting the copying of protected digital media, and the usability of the new User Account Control security technology.
Moreover, some concerns have been raised about many PCs meeting "Vista Premium Ready" hardware requirements and Vista's pricing. While Microsoft claimed "nearly all PCs on the market today will run Windows Vista", the higher requirements of some of the "premium" features, such as the Aero interface, have had an impact on many upgraders. This continuing lack of clarity eventually led to a class action against Microsoft as people found themselves with new computers that were unable to use the new software to its full potential despite the assurance of "Vista Capable" designations.
The court case has made public internal Microsoft communications that indicate that senior executives have also had difficulty with this issue. Criticism of upgrade licenses pertaining to Windows Vista Starter through Home Premium was expressed by Ars Technica 's Ken Fisher, who noted that the new requirement of having a prior operating system already installed was going to cause irritation for users who reinstall Windows on a regular basis.
It has been revealed that an Upgrade copy of Windows Vista can be installed clean without first installing a previous version of Windows. On the first install, Windows will refuse to activate. The user must then reinstall that same copy of Vista. Vista will then activate on the reinstall, thus allowing a user to install an Upgrade of Windows Vista without owning a previous operating system.
As with Windows XP, separate rules still apply to OEM versions of Vista installed on new PCs: Microsoft asserts that these versions are not legally transferable although whether this conflicts with the right of first sale has yet to be decided clearly legally. Initially the cost of Windows Vista was also a source of concern and commentary. A majority of users in a poll said that the prices of various Windows Vista editions posted on the Microsoft Canada website in August make the product too expensive.
A BBC News report on the day of Vista's release suggested that, "there may be a backlash from consumers over its pricing plans—with the cost of Vista versions in the US roughly half the price of equivalent versions in the UK. Since the release of Vista in Microsoft has reduced the retail, and upgrade price point of Vista considerably. Windows Vista supports additional forms of digital rights management restrictions.
Requirements for Windows Vista SP2. Installing Windows Vista SP2. Known issues after upgrading to Windows Vista SP2. Related information. Specifically, Windows Vista SP2 provides improvements in the following areas:. Improved wireless networking performance after resuming from sleep. If you have previously downloaded and installed a prerelease version of Windows Vista SP2, uninstall it using the steps described in Uninstalling Software in Windows Vista in English.